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Benjamin Hollingsworth, Ted Atherton; duration=107 M; Canada; genre=Horror; 1562 Votes; John Serge. Outfoxed. Top definitions related content examples explore dictionary british medical [ rab -id. ˈræb ɪd / adjective irrationally extreme in opinion or practice: a rabid isolationist; a rabid baseball fan. furious or raging; violently intense: a rabid hunger. affected with or pertaining to rabies; mad. Words related to rabid frenzied, fanatical, delirious, zealous, enthusiastic, crazed, virulent, furious, fervent, berserk, bigoted, crazy, deranged, extreme, extremist, frantic, frenetic, hot, infuriated, insane Words nearby rabid rabelaisian, rabi, rabi i, rabi ii, rabia, rabid, rabies, rabies immune globulin, rabies vaccine, rabies virus, rabin Origin of rabid 1605–15. Latin rabidus raving, furious, mad, equivalent to rab(ere) to rave, be mad. idus -id 4 OTHER WORDS FROM rabid rabidity [r uh - bid -i-tee, ra. rəˈbɪd ɪ ti, ræ. rabidness, noun rabidly, adverb Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2020 Examples from the Web for rabid This method works for TB, for cholera, for rabid animals—for just about everything. Which is why his efforts to justify his rabid consumption of football wind up feeling so slippery and convoluted. But once EV-68 fizzles out, surely something new will fill its place in the rabid 24-hour all-crisis-all-the-time news cycle. Given the hoops mania, though, the gym is the largest in the state, capable of holding 3, 000-plus rabid fans. The relatively lax immigration policy of the early 20th century gave way to rabid nativism in the 1920s. Besides carrying the traveling credentials of an ordinary skunk, he is rabid in the most rabid issimus form. I have been told of a contemptible journal in this city which is said to have preached war against France with a rabid fanaticism. Mr. Bickerstaff goes on to describe the private Bedlam he has provided for such as are seized with these rabid political maladies. And as for aristocrats, my friend, there are none so rabid as the newly-converted. Hertwig obtained rabies in two cases only out of eleven inoculations with the blood of rabid subjects. British Dictionary definitions for rabid rabid. ˈræbɪd, ˈreɪ. adjective relating to or having rabies zealous; fanatical; violent; raging Derived forms of rabid rabidity ( rəˈbɪdɪtɪ) or rabidness, noun rabidly, adverb Word Origin for rabid C17: from Latin rabidus frenzied, mad, from rabere to be mad Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012 Medical definitions for rabid rabid adj. Of or affected by rabies. The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary Copyright 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

Remaking a movie by a guy who was talented enough to create one of the great all-time remakes is ballsy and almost bound to fail. Rabid is close to being a good remake but has too many issues for my liking.
The story: a beautiful fashion designer has a life-changing accident and is doomed to a future of ugliness, unless she undergoes an experimental operation which has unforseen side-effects for her and the city around her. br> It's a cool premise, as was with the original but the pacing is way off. It takes too long to get off the ground and then when it does, lacks focus and seems to be telling two distinct stories rather than one, whereas Cronenberg's movie has a much sharper narrative.
There are a few grisly scenes but not immensly eye-opening for something that really should have people squirming.
The lead actress is good and, on the whole, the acting is solid but let down in a few places by some support roles. The editing could be a lot slicker; some scenes just felt dragged out and irrelevant.
I think it's worth checking out if you like the original but I'd be surprised if many people hail this as a big success.

I love when the boy says Are you ok it's so cute and Adorable❤❤❤❤❤❤❤. Rabid Theatrical release poster Directed by David Cronenberg Produced by John Dunning Written by David Cronenberg Starring Marilyn Chambers Frank Moore Joe Silver Howard Ryshpan Cinematography René Verzier Edited by Jean LaFleur Production company Dunning/Link/Reitman Distributed by Cinépix Film Properties New World Pictures Release date April 8, 1977 Running time 91 minutes Country Canada United States [1] Language English Rabid is a 1977 Canadian-American body horror film written and directed by David Cronenberg. It features Marilyn Chambers in the lead role, supported by Frank Moore, Joe Silver and Howard Ryshpan. Chambers plays a woman who, after being injured in a motorcycle accident and undergoing a surgical operation, develops an orifice under one of her armpits. The orifice hides a phallic stinger that she uses to feed on people's blood. Soon, those she feeds upon become infected, whose bite spreads the disease and soon causes massive chaos starting in the Quebec countryside and ending up in Montreal. Plot [ edit] Rose and her boyfriend Hart get into a motorcycle accident in the Quebec countryside, caused by a van parked in the middle of the road. While Hart suffers a broken hand, a separated shoulder and a concussion, Rose is severely injured and burned by the incident. They are both transported to the nearby Keloid Clinic for Plastic Surgery where head doctor Dan Keloid decides to perform a radical new procedure on Rose. He uses morphogenetically neutral grafts to her chest and abdomen in the hope that it will differentiate and replace the damaged skin and organs. One month later, Hart is released while Rose remains in a coma. Rose abruptly awakens from her coma screaming, prompting patient Lloyd Walsh to calm her down and hold her hand, but she pierces his skin as she holds him. When asked, Lloyd cannot remember anything afterwards and the doctor does not know what caused the injury on his right arm; it is only known that his blood is not clotting from the wound and he cannot feel anything on his right side. While Keloid transfers him to Montreal General Hospital for further evaluation, his experimental procedures on Rose have caused a mutation in her body that made her able to only subsist on human blood. A new organ resembling a red phallic stinger emerges from a small orifice below Rose's armpit, which pierces her victims and draws their blood. One night, Rose leaves the clinic to feed upon a nearby cow's blood which makes her vomit. A drunken farmer tries to attack her, but she pierces and feeds on him before calling Hart to pick her up. The next day, the farmer turns into a pale zombie -like monster and attacks a waitress at a nearby diner. Lloyd discharges himself from the clinic. While taking a taxi to the airport, he begins foaming at the mouth and attacks the driver. The car crashes into the freeway before a nearby truck totals them both. At the clinic, Keloid is infected by Rose's stinger and attacks from within, which causes panic. During this time, Rose escapes from the hospital despite calling Hart to come to her aid, and hitchhikes rides from various people to Montreal. She infects one of the truck drivers, causing the driver to attack his colleague. Hart and Keloid's business partner, Murray Cypher, while searching for Rose, meet up with police chief Claude LePointe and public health officials in talks about an upcoming epidemic. During this time, Hart witnesses an officer become infected before being shot by uninfected police officers. He calls Rose's friend Mindy and asks her to keep Rose in her apartment if she appears until he can come over. Rose arrives in the city and stays in Mindy's apartment. While Mindy watches a television broadcast detailing a new strain of rabies now all over Montreal, Rose goes to a sex cinema and infects a leering patron. LePointe, while riding a limousine with local health officials, is attacked by two infected crewmen who use a jackhammer through the vehicle door and drag the driver out to feed on him. The other official and LePointe, forced to leave their driver behind, escape by driving in reverse. With the infection becoming worse in the city, and the standard rabies treatment having no effect, Dr. Royce Gentry advises a shoot-to-kill policy to prevent future infections. Extreme martial law is declared within Montreal, and the doctor works on developing a cure. National Guard road blocks are set to check for infected people, and a convoy of NBC -suited soldiers ride into the city to assist the authorities with body disposal. Murray and Hart arrive at the former's home and as Hart drives away in Murray's car, Murray calls for his wife, but there is no answer. Murray wanders into his baby's nursery where he finds what is left of his baby and is attacked by his infected wife. Hart goes into the deserted city to search for Rose. An infected civilian jumps onto Hart's car before being shot, and the bio-warfare suited soldiers spray disinfectant on his car before permitting him to continue driving. Mindy watches a report which says that a possible carrier of the infection may be immune and has been traced back to the Keloid Clinic. Rose walks into the room and feeds on Mindy. Hart finds Rose in the act and tries to reason with her about treatment, but she refuses to believe him and is in denial that she is responsible for the epidemic that has now claimed many people. He chases her in the apartment, but he is rendered unconscious and she infects a man waiting in the apartment lobby. When Hart awakens, Rose brings the newly infected man to his apartment and locks herself inside the room before calling Hart about her plan; she wants to test Hart's accusation and see if the man turns infected or not. While Hart frantically tells her to leave the apartment and hopelessly sits at the receiver, the infected man awakens and attacks Rose. The next morning, Rose's corpse is found by the bio-ware suited soldiers in an alleyway and they dump her in a garbage truck. Cast [ edit] Production [ edit] Cronenberg stated that he wanted to cast Sissy Spacek in the film lead, but the studio vetoed his choice because of her accent. Spacek's film Carrie was released during this film's production and proved to be a massive hit (and a movie poster for the film appears when the main character walks by a movie theater. 2] The director says that the idea of casting Chambers came from executive producer Ivan Reitman, who had heard that Chambers was looking for a mainstream role. Reitman felt that it would be easier to market the film in different territories if the well-known porn star portrayed the main character. Cronenberg stated that Chambers put in a lot of hard work on the film and that he was impressed with her. Cronenberg further states he had not seen Chambers' most well-known film, Behind the Green Door, prior to casting her. [3] Release [ edit] Rabid was released theatrically in the United States by New World Pictures in 1977. [4] Home media [ edit] It was given a home video release on VHS cassette by Warner Home Video in 1983. The film was later re-released on DVD by New Concorde Home Entertainment in 2000. [5] The DVD itself was re-released again in a Special Edition version by E1 Entertainment in 2004. [6] The film was released on dual format Blu-ray Disc / DVD by Arrow Video in the UK in February 16, 2015 [7] and Scream Factory released the film on Blu-ray on November 22, 2016. Reception [ edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. March 2015) Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports that 73% of 26 surveyed critics gave the film a positive review; the average rating is 6. 22/10. [8] Remake [ edit] In July 2018, a remake of the film directed by the Soska sisters and starring Laura Vandervoort began production. [9] edit] A novelization by Richard Lewis was released in 1978, 10] while in 2002 the film's script was published by Faber & Faber in the collection David Cronenberg: Collected Screenplays 1: Stereo, Crimes of the Future, Shivers, Rabid. [11] See also [ edit] Shivers References [ edit] "Rabid. American Film Institute. Retrieved 31 December 2015. ^ Cronenberg, David (2004. Rabid. Somerville House. ^ Cronenberg, David (2004. Rabid (DVD. Somerville House. ^ Company Credits for Rabid. Retrieved 2011-03-31. ^ Rabid: The Director's Series. Retrieved 2011-03-31. ^ Rabid: Special Edition. Retrieved 2011-03-31. ^ Arrow Video's "RABID" Blu. Retrieved 2011-03-31. ^ Rabid (1979. Rotten Tomatoes. Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 19 July 2019. ^ Vlessing, Etan (July 17, 2018. Code Black' Star Boards Remake of David Cronenberg's 'Rabid. The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 18, 2018. ^ Lewis, Richard (1978. Rabid. Mayflower. ISBN   0583128521. ^ Cronenberg, David (2002. David Cronenberg: Collected Screenplays 1: Sterero, Crimes of the Future, Shivers, Rabid. Faber & Faber. ISBN   0571210171. External links [ edit] Rabid info, trivia and photos Rabid on IMDb Rabid at Rotten Tomatoes Rabid at AllMovie Rabid at the TCM Movie Database.

Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. rabid   (răb′ĭd) adj. 1. Of or affected by rabies. 2. Raging; uncontrollable: rabid thirst. 3. Extremely zealous or enthusiastic; fanatical: a rabid football fan. [Latin rabidus, from rabere, to rave. rabid′ity (rə-bĭd′ĭ-tē, ră. rab′idness (răb′ĭd-nĭs) n. rab′idly adv. rabid ( ˈræbɪd; ˈreɪ- adj 1. (Pathology) relating to or having rabies 2. zealous; fanatical; violent; raging [C17: from Latin rabidus frenzied, mad, from rabere to be mad] rabidity, ˈrabidness n ˈrabidly adv rab•id (ˈræb ɪd) adj. irrationally extreme in opinion or practice. furious or raging; violently intense. affected with or pertaining to rabies: a rabid dog. [1605–15. Latin rabidus raging, rabid < rabere to rave] rab•id•i•ty (rəˈbɪd ɪ ti, ræ- rab′id•ness, n. rab′id•ly, adv. rabid, rabies - Rabid and rabies come from Latin rabere, be mad. See also related terms for mad. Thesaurus Antonyms Related Words Synonyms Legend: Adj. rabid - of or infected by rabies 2. rabid - marked by excessive enthusiasm for and intense devotion to a cause or idea; rabid isolationist" passionate - having or expressing strong emotions rabid adjective 1. fanatical, extreme, irrational, fervent, zealous, bigoted, intolerant, narrow-minded, intemperate the rabid state media fanatical moderate, wishy-washy (informal) half-hearted 2. crazed, wild, violent, mad, raging, furious, frantic, frenzied, infuriated, berserk, maniacal The tablets gave him the look of a rabid dog. rabid adjective 1. Showing or having enthusiasm: 2. Holding especially political views that deviate drastically and fundamentally from conventional or traditional beliefs: 3. Full of or marked by extreme anger: Translations kiihkeä raivoisa raivokas turbat rabid [ˈræbɪd] adj [ dog, animal] → enragé (e. nationalist, racist, supporter] → enragé (e. nationalism, views] → fanatique rabid [ˈræbɪd] adj ( dog) → idrofobo/a, rabbioso/a ( fig. furious) → arrabbiato/a. fanatical) → fanatico/a rabid a. rabioso-a, rel. a la rabia o afectado por ella. rabid adj rabioso, que padece rabia.

Edit Storyline In Camelford, while swinging his van across a narrow road to make a u-turn, a driver stalls the vehicle that does not restart. Hart Read is driving his motorcycle with his girlfriend Rose and he drives off the road to avoid the collision. Hart suffers minor injuries while Rosie is injured and burned by the flames when the motorcycle explodes. The ambulance from the nearby Keloid Clinic for Plastic Surgery brings the couple and Rose, who is in coma, is submitted to an emergency surgery and to an experimental plastic-surgery technique by Dr. Dan Keloid to retrieve her skin in the chest and abdomen. Hart is discharged but Rose stays in coma in the intensive care unit (ICU) to recover. Out of the blue, Rose awakens from her coma one month later and screams. A nurse helps her but is wounded by her and then he cannot remember what has happened. He is sent to a hospital in Montreal while Rose realizes that she needs to feed with blood. However her victims become zombie-like creatures. Rose... Written by Claudio Carvalho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Plot Summary, Plot Synopsis Taglines: One minute they're perfectly normal, THE NEXT. Rabid] See more  » Details Release Date: 8 April 1977 (USA) Box Office Budget: CAD530, 000 (estimated) See more on IMDbPro  » Company Credits Technical Specs Color: Color (Eastmancolor) See full technical specs  » Did You Know? Trivia In the baby's room, there is a Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy toy chest. Co-star Joe Silver, who plays Murray Cypher, contributed voice work to Raggedy Ann & Andy: A Musical Adventure, which was released the same month. See more » Goofs When Rose is wandering through the streets at night, she enters a cinema hall. As she opens the glass door, a couple of crewmembers and spotlights are reflected in it. See more » Quotes Murray Cypher: Potato man loves ketchup man. See more » Alternate Versions The Japanese VHS is uncut, containing footage not seen on other releases of the film. See more » Connections References Shivers  (1975) Soundtracks Hideout by Brian Bennett (uncredited) See more ».

Fox fox fox. wait WHAT DID THE FOX SAYS.

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Colorado is a bad place spot on. Looks like Netflix web series Leila. If someone wants to see something scary go watch what happens when rabies isnt treated in time. Death is nothing compared to the suffering of rabies. Rabid putlockers free For Free online Rabid Movie English Full Watch Online Online HD Hindi HBO 2018 Download. Watch Rabid movie vidzi.

Hey man so sad that your own dog has rabies and you had to get away from it and watch it suffer. When the hot sauce goes up ur nose. The Power of Psychedelics is the true ending of this movie 😂😂. This reimagining of the Cronenberg-Marilyn Chambers classic is actually quite a guilty treat on it's own and a surprise. It wraps all the themes and elements together of the source material and does it with flair. The lead actress was great in the role and paralleled the emotions of what you felt like while watching Marilyn Chambers in her original peril. The music and cinematography was better than expected. Though there were some moments of cheese I felt they fit with the theme well enough even going in to B-Movie SciFi realm a bit. Overall this film impressed me for the expectations I had and I find it may very well be the Soska sister's finest work to date.

YouTube. Quick Facts Screenshots Videos View in 3D Links This NPC can be found in Winterspring (39. Guides Classic WoW World Buff and Consumables Guide Related Contribute.

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…. The trailer should've ended at 01:20 keeping us curious about: will she survive? definitely or the movie maker wanna for some reason subvert expectation which would be stupid in this plot) how is she gonna survive? strike back and also most of the family members are idiots as shown in the trailer) why is the family doing it? cult/ritual) what about the husband is he gonna kill her too? no or he is a twist villain) can she stay married and be a part of this crazy family afterwards? probably) but almost all the questions are already answered by the trailer. and i'm not interested to see this movie anymore.


To save this word, you'll need to log in. rabid. ˈra-bəd also ˈrā. 1 a: extremely violent: furious b: going to extreme lengths in expressing or pursuing a feeling, interest, or opinion rabid editorials a rabid supporter Other Words from rabid rabidity rə-ˈbi-də-tē, ra- rā. noun rabidly ˈra-bəd-lē also  ˈrā. adverb rabidness noun Examples of rabid in a Sentence a politician with rabid supporters Her husband is a rabid baseball fan. Recent Examples on the Web Heinz Field is still a tough place to play, with a rabid fan base hoping the Steelers can get back into the AFC North race. — Joel A. Erickson, Indianapolis Star, Colts relish opportunity to play on road at Heinz Field despite rough history vs. Steelers. 31 Oct. 2019 The Rays are in need of a passionate, rabid fan base for the ALDS and Portland has one waiting for the @PDXDiamondProj to build this stadium. John Canzano, The Oregonian/oregonlive, oregonlive, Canzano: MLB to PDX effort builds hope that Rob Manfred will hear the playoff cheers from Portland. 4 Oct. 2019 So, what can the shows rabid fan base expect from these latest tales about the murderous and mayhem-creating Shelby clan? Clark Collis. Peaky Blinders creator says a film about the Shelby family is a 'strong possibility. 3 Oct. 2019 The rabies virus is found in an animals saliva and is transmitted to people by a bite from a rabid animal. Los Angeles Times, Live rabid bat found in Seal Beach. 10 Oct. 2019 Given the shows rabid fandom, the hypothesis is not unfounded. Liana Satenstein, Vogue, The Most Googled Fashion Trends of 2019 Are Bizarre—And Yet Make So Much Sense. 19 Dec. 2019 Our Star Wars special edition has enough to satiate even the most rabid of fans. Tyler Aquilina. The Rise of Skywalker. 9 Dec. 2019 Between the rabid fans of the sci-fi franchise and his indeterminate work on a new chapter for the space saga, thats no easy task. John Wenzel, The Know, Director Rian Johnson on juggling “Knives Out, ” following “The Last Jedi, ” and more. 1 Dec. 2019 Twilight was released in 2008 and was an instant hit, thanks in large part to the rabid fans of Stephenie Meyers highly popular books. Alexia Fernandez. Twilight Turns 11! See What Kristen Stewart, Robert Pattinson and the Cast Are Up to Now. 21 Nov. 2019 These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'rabid. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of rabid 1594, in the meaning defined at sense 1a History and Etymology for rabid Latin rabidus mad, from rabere Learn More about rabid Cite this Entry “Rabid. ” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster. Accessed 2 Feb. 2020. More Definitions for rabid rabid. ˈra-bəd, ˈrā. 2: having or expressing a very extreme opinion about or interest in something a rabid fan 3: affected with rabies a rabid dog Other Words from rabid rabidly adverb rabid. ˈrab-əd also ˈrā-bəd Medical Definition of rabid: affected with rabies a rabid dog Comments on rabid What made you want to look up rabid? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible.

“Aw man you killed the maid!” Im gonna laugh at this. 1 win & 1 nomination. See more awards  » Edit Storyline What happens when you realize that to achieve your dreams you have to live a nightmare? Rose is a quiet, demure, unassuming woman in her looks and actions. Her dream is to become a famous designer in the fashion world, but a terrible accident leaves Rose scarred beyond recognition. She seeks out a radical untested stem cell treatment. The treatment is nothing short of a miracle and wallflower Rose turns into the belle of the ball. It all seems to good to be true. She is now everything she wanted to be. But everything in life comes at a price and this new found perfect life is no exception. Plot Summary, Add Synopsis Details Release Date: 13 December 2019 (USA) See more  » Box Office Budget: 5, 000, 000 (estimated) See more on IMDbPro  » Company Credits Technical Specs See full technical specs  » Did You Know? Trivia Remake of David Cronenberg's second movie of the same title from 1977. See more » Goofs Dr. Keloid says the accident punctured Rose's abdomen, but the bandages are on her chest. See more » Connections Remake of Rabid  (1977) See more ».

Ho LIKES descendants 3. This is perhaps the WORST movie of 2019.
Thinly veiled re working of Cronenberg's GOOD Rabid. Surprised he didnt sue their ashes off if just because this is an abomination of film making.
Don't waste your time or believe the fake reviews here. Rabies A dog with rabies in the paralytic (post-furious) stage Specialty Infectious disease Symptoms Fever, fear of water, confusion, excessive salivation, hallucinations, trouble sleeping, paralysis, coma [1] 2] Causes Rabies virus, Australian bat lyssavirus [3] Prevention Rabies vaccine, animal control, rabies immunoglobulin [1] Prognosis Nearly always death [1] Deaths 17, 400 (2015) 4] Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals. [1] Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure. [1] These symptoms are followed by one or more of the following symptoms: violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, fear of water, an inability to move parts of the body, confusion, and loss of consciousness. [1] Once symptoms appear, the result is nearly always death. [1] The time period between contracting the disease and the start of symptoms is usually one to three months, but can vary from less than one week to more than one year. [1] The time depends on the distance the virus must travel along peripheral nerves to reach the central nervous system. [5] Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses, including the rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. [3] It is spread when an infected animal bites or scratches a human or other animal. [1] Saliva from an infected animal can also transmit rabies if the saliva comes into contact with the eyes, mouth, or nose. [1] Globally, dogs are the most common animal involved. [1] In countries where dogs commonly have the disease, more than 99% of rabies cases are the direct result of dog bites. [6] In the Americas, bat bites are the most common source of rabies infections in humans, and less than 5% of cases are from dogs. [1] 6] Rodents are very rarely infected with rabies. [6] The disease can be diagnosed only after the start of symptoms. [1] Animal control and vaccination programs have decreased the risk of rabies from dogs in a number of regions of the world. [1] Immunizing people before they are exposed is recommended for those at high risk, including those who work with bats or who spend prolonged periods in areas of the world where rabies is common. [1] In people who have been exposed to rabies, the rabies vaccine and sometimes rabies immunoglobulin are effective in preventing the disease if the person receives the treatment before the start of rabies symptoms. [1] Washing bites and scratches for 15 minutes with soap and water, povidone-iodine, or detergent may reduce the number of viral particles and may be somewhat effective at preventing transmission. [1] 7] As of 2016, only fourteen people had survived a rabies infection after showing symptoms. [8] 9] 10] Rabies caused about 17, 400 human deaths worldwide in 2015. [4] More than 95% of human deaths from rabies occur in Africa and Asia. [1] About 40% of deaths occur in children under the age of 15. [11] Rabies is present in more than 150 countries and on all continents but Antarctica. [1] More than 3 billion people live in regions of the world where rabies occurs. [1] A number of countries, including Australia and Japan, as well as much of Western Europe, do not have rabies among dogs. [12] 13] Many Pacific islands do not have rabies at all. [13] It is classified as a neglected tropical disease. [14] Signs and symptoms The period between infection and the first symptoms (incubation period) is typically 1–3 months in humans. [15] This period may be as short as four days or longer than six years, depending on the location and severity of the wound and the amount of virus introduced. [15] Initial symptoms of rabies are often nonspecific such as fever and headache. [15] As rabies progresses and causes inflammation of the brain and meninges, symptoms can include slight or partial paralysis, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, terror, and hallucinations. [5] 15] The person may also have fear of water. [1] The symptoms eventually progress to delirium, and coma. [5] 15] Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after first symptoms. Survival is almost unknown once symptoms have presented, even with intensive care. [15] 16] Fear of water Hydrophobia ( fear of water" is the historic name for rabies. [17] It refers to a set of symptoms in the later stages of an infection in which the person has difficulty swallowing, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench their thirst. Any mammal infected with the virus may demonstrate hydrophobia. [18] Saliva production is greatly increased, and attempts to drink, or even the intention or suggestion of drinking, may cause excruciatingly painful spasms of the muscles in the throat and larynx. This can be attributed to the fact that the virus multiplies and assimilates in the salivary glands of the infected animal with the effect of further transmission through biting. The ability to transmit the virus would decrease significantly if the infected individual could swallow saliva and water. [19] Hydrophobia is commonly associated with furious rabies, which affects 80% of rabies-infected people. The remaining 20% may experience a paralytic form of rabies that is marked by muscle weakness, loss of sensation, and paralysis; this form of rabies does not usually cause fear of water. [18] Cause Drawing of the rabies virus. Rabies is caused by a number of lyssaviruses including the rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. [3] Duvenhage lyssavirus may cause a rabies-like infection. [20] The rabies virus is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus, in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Lyssavirions have helical symmetry, with a length of about 180  nm and a cross-section of about 75 nm. [21] These virions are enveloped and have a single-stranded RNA genome with negative sense. The genetic information is packed as a ribonucleoprotein complex in which RNA is tightly bound by the viral nucleoprotein. The RNA genome of the virus encodes five genes whose order is highly conserved: nucleoprotein (N) phosphoprotein (P) matrix protein (M) glycoprotein (G) and the viral RNA polymerase (L. 22] Once within a muscle or nerve cell, the virus undergoes replication. The trimeric spikes on the exterior of the membrane of the virus interact with a specific cell receptor, the most likely one being the acetylcholine receptor. The cellular membrane pinches in a procession known as pinocytosis and allows entry of the virus into the cell by way of an endosome. The virus then uses the acidic environment, which is necessary, of that endosome and binds to its membrane simultaneously, releasing its five proteins and single strand RNA into the cytoplasm. [23] The L protein then transcribes five mRNA strands and a positive strand of RNA all from the original negative strand RNA using free nucleotides in the cytoplasm. These five mRNA strands are then translated into their corresponding proteins (P, L, N, G and M proteins) at free ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Some proteins require post-translative modifications. For example, the G protein travels through the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where it undergoes further folding, and is then transported to the Golgi apparatus, where a sugar group is added to it ( glycosylation. 23] When there are enough viral proteins, the viral polymerase will begin to synthesize new negative strands of RNA from the template of the positive strand RNA. These negative strands will then form complexes with the N, P, L and M proteins and then travel to the inner membrane of the cell, where a G protein has embedded itself in the membrane. The G protein then coils around the N-P-L-M complex of proteins taking some of the host cell membrane with it, which will form the new outer envelope of the virus particle. The virus then buds from the cell. [23] From the point of entry, the virus is neurotropic, traveling along the neural pathways into the central nervous system. The virus usually first infects muscle cells close to the site of infection, where they are able to replicate without being 'noticed' by the host's immune system. Once enough virus has been replicated, they begin to bind to acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. [24] The virus then travels through the nerve cell axon via retrograde transport, as its P protein interacts with dynein, a protein present in the cytoplasm of nerve cells. Once the virus reaches the cell body it travels rapidly to the central nervous system (CNS) replicating in motor neurons and eventually reaching the brain. [5] After the brain is infected, the virus travels centrifugally to the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems, eventually migrating to the salivary glands, where it is ready to be transmitted to the next host. [25] 317 Transmission All warm-blooded species, including humans, may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms. Birds were first artificially infected with rabies in 1884; however, infected birds are largely, if not wholly, asymptomatic, and recover. [26] Other bird species have been known to develop rabies antibodies, a sign of infection, after feeding on rabies-infected mammals. [27] 28] The virus has also adapted to grow in cells of cold-blooded vertebrates. [29] 30] Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans. Infected bats, 31] 32] monkeys, raccoons, foxes, skunks, cattle, wolves, coyotes, dogs, cats, and mongooses (normally either the small Asian mongoose or the yellow mongoose) 33] present the greatest risk to humans. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected bears, domestic farm animals, groundhogs, weasels, and other wild carnivorans. However, lagomorphs, such as hares and rabbits, and small rodents such as chipmunks, gerbils, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, rats, and squirrels, are almost never found to be infected with rabies and are not known to transmit rabies to humans. [34] Bites from mice, rats, or squirrels rarely require rabies prevention because these rodents are typically killed by any encounter with a larger, rabid animal, and would, therefore, not be carriers. [35] The Virginia opossum is resistant but not immune to rabies. [36] The virus is usually present in the nerves and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal. [37] 38] The route of infection is usually, but not always, by a bite. In many cases, the infected animal is exceptionally aggressive, may attack without provocation, and exhibits otherwise uncharacteristic behavior. [39] This is an example of a viral pathogen modifying the behavior of its host to facilitate its transmission to other hosts. Transmission between humans is extremely rare. A few cases have been recorded through transplant surgery. [40] The only well-documented cases of rabies caused by human-to-human transmission occurred among eight recipients of transplanted corneas and among three recipients of solid organs. [41] In addition to transmission from cornea and organ transplants, bite and non-bite exposures inflicted by infected humans could theoretically transmit rabies, but no such cases have been documented, since infected humans are usually hospitalized and necessary precautions taken. Casual contact, such as touching a person with rabies or contact with non-infectious fluid or tissue (urine, blood, feces) does not constitute an exposure and does not require post-exposure prophylaxis. Additionally, as the virus is present in sperm or vaginal secretions, spread through sex may be possible. [42] After a typical human infection by bite, the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. It then travels along the afferent nerves toward the central nervous system. [43] During this phase, the virus cannot be easily detected within the host, and vaccination may still confer cell-mediated immunity to prevent symptomatic rabies. When the virus reaches the brain, it rapidly causes encephalitis, the prodromal phase, which is the beginning of the symptoms. Once the patient becomes symptomatic, treatment is almost never effective and mortality is over 99. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord, producing transverse myelitis. [44] 45] Diagnosis Rabies can be difficult to diagnose because, in the early stages, it is easily confused with other diseases or with aggressiveness. [46] The reference method for diagnosing rabies is the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) an immunohistochemistry procedure, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. 47] The FAT relies on the ability of a detector molecule (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) coupled with a rabies-specific antibody, forming a conjugate, to bind to and allow the visualisation of rabies antigen using fluorescent microscopy techniques. Microscopic analysis of samples is the only direct method that allows for the identification of rabies virus-specific antigen in a short time and at a reduced cost, irrespective of geographical origin and status of the host. It has to be regarded as the first step in diagnostic procedures for all laboratories. Autolysed samples can, however, reduce the sensitivity and specificity of the FAT. [48] The RT PCR assays proved to be a sensitive and specific tool for routine diagnostic purposes, 49] particularly in decomposed samples [50] or archival specimens. [51] The diagnosis can be reliably made from brain samples taken after death. The diagnosis can also be made from saliva, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples, but this is not as sensitive or reliable as brain samples. [48] Cerebral inclusion bodies called Negri bodies are 100% diagnostic for rabies infection but are found in only about 80% of cases. [21] If possible, the animal from which the bite was received should also be examined for rabies. [52] Some light microscopy techniques may also be used to diagnose rabies at a tenth of the cost of traditional fluorescence microscopy techniques, allowing identification of the disease in less-developed countries. [53] A test for rabies, known as LN34, is easier to run on a dead animal's brain and might help determine who does and does not need post-exposure prevention. [54] The test was developed by the CDC in 2018. [54] Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis, in particular infection with viruses such as herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses such as West Nile virus. The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type one, varicella zoster virus, and (less commonly) enteroviruses, including coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, polioviruses, and human enteroviruses 68 to 71. [55] New causes of viral encephalitis are also possible, as was evidenced by the 1999 outbreak in Malaysia of 300 cases of encephalitis with a mortality rate of 40% caused by Nipah virus, a newly recognized paramyxovirus. [56] Likewise, well-known viruses may be introduced into new locales, as is illustrated by the outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile virus in the eastern United States. [57] Epidemiologic factors, such as season, geographic location, and the patient's age, travel history, and possible exposure to bites, rodents, and ticks, may help direct the diagnosis. Prevention Almost all human cases of rabies were fatal until a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux. Their original vaccine was harvested from infected rabbits, from which the virus in the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing it to dry for five to ten days. [58] Similar nerve tissue-derived vaccines are still used in some countries, as they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines. [59] The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967. Less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified vero cell rabies vaccine are now available. [52] A recombinant vaccine called V-RG has been used in Belgium, France, Germany, and the United States to prevent outbreaks of rabies in undomesticated animals. [60] Immunization before exposure has been used in both human and nonhuman populations, where, as in many jurisdictions, domesticated animals are required to be vaccinated. [61] The Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services Communicable Disease Surveillance 2007 Annual Report states the following can help reduce the risk of contracting rabies: 62] Vaccinating dogs, cats, and ferrets against rabies Keeping pets under supervision Not handling wild animals or strays Contacting an animal control officer upon observing a wild animal or a stray, especially if the animal is acting strangely If bitten by an animal, washing the wound with soap and water for 10 to 15 minutes and contacting a healthcare provider to determine if post-exposure prophylaxis is required 28 September is World Rabies Day, which promotes the information, prevention, and elimination of the disease. [63] Vaccinating other animals In Asia and in parts of the Americas and Africa, dogs remain the principal host. Mandatory vaccination of animals is less effective in rural areas. Especially in developing countries, pets may not be privately kept and their destruction may be unacceptable. Oral vaccines can be safely distributed in baits, a practice that has successfully reduced rabies in rural areas of Canada, France, and the United States. In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, baits are successfully used on raccoons in the Mount-Royal Park area. Vaccination campaigns may be expensive, and cost-benefit analysis suggests baits may be a cost-effective method of control. [64] In Ontario, a dramatic drop in rabies was recorded when an aerial bait-vaccination campaign was launched. [65] The number of recorded human deaths from rabies in the United States has dropped from 100 or more annually in the early 20th century to one or two per year due to widespread vaccination of domestic dogs and cats and the development of human vaccines and immunoglobulin treatments. Most deaths now result from bat bites, which may go unnoticed by the victim and hence untreated. [66] Treatment After exposure Treatment after exposure can prevent the disease if given within 10 days. The rabies vaccine is 100% effective if given early, and still has a chance of success if delivery is delayed. [21] 23] 67] Every year, more than 15 million people get vaccination after potential exposure. While this works well, the cost is significant. [68] In the US it is recommended people receive one dose of human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and four doses of rabies vaccine over a 14-day period. [69] HRIG is expensive and makes up most of the cost of post exposure treatment, ranging as high as several thousand dollars. [70] As much as possible of this dose should be injected around the bites, with the remainder being given by deep intramuscular injection at a site distant from the vaccination site. [23] People who have previously been vaccinated against rabies do not need to receive the immunoglobulin, only the postexposure vaccinations on days 0 and 3. [71] The side effects of modern cell-based vaccines are similar to flu shots. The old nerve-tissue-based vaccinations required multiple injections into the abdomen with a large needle but is inexpensive. [52] It is being phased out and replaced by affordable World Health Organization intradermal-vaccination regimens. [52] Intramuscular vaccination should be given into the deltoid, not the gluteal area, which has been associated with vaccination failure due to injection into fat rather than muscle. In children less than a year old, the lateral thigh is recommended. [72] Thoroughly washing the wound as soon as possible with soap and water for approximately five minutes is effective in reducing the number of viral particles. [73] Povidone-iodine or alcohol is then recommended to reduce the virus further. [74] Awakening to find a bat in the room, or finding a bat in the room of a previously unattended child or mentally disabled or intoxicated person, is an indication for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. The recommendation for the precautionary use of PEP in bat encounters where no contact is recognized has been questioned in the medical literature, based on a cost–benefit analysis. [75] However, a 2002 study has supported the protocol of precautionary administering of PEP where a child or mentally compromised individual has been alone with a bat, especially in sleep areas, where a bite or exposure may occur with the victim being unaware. [76] After onset A treatment known as the Milwaukee protocol, which involves putting a person into a chemically induced coma and using antiviral medications, has been proposed but subsequently found not to be useful. [77] It initially came into use in 2003, following Jeanna Giese, a teenager from Wisconsin, becoming the first person known to have survived rabies without preventive treatments before symptom onset. [78] 79] She, however, already had antibodies against rabies when she initially arrived at hospital. [77] While this treatment has been tried multiple times more, there have been no further cases of survival. [77] The protocol has since been assessed as an ineffective treatment with concerns related to the costs and ethics of its use. [77] 80] Prognosis Vaccination after exposure, PEP, is highly successful in preventing the disease PEP against rabies. [67] In unvaccinated humans, rabies is almost always fatal after neurological symptoms have developed. [81] Epidemiology Deaths from rabies per million persons in 2012    0    1    2–4    5–9    10–17    18–69 Map of rabies-free countries and territories In 2010, an estimated 26, 000 people died from rabies, down from 54, 000 in 1990. [82] The majority of the deaths occurred in Asia and Africa. [81] As of 2015, India, followed by China (approximately 6, 000) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (5, 600) had the most cases. [83] A 2015 collaboration between the World Health Organization, World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO) and Global Alliance for Rabies Control has a goal of eliminating deaths from rabies by 2030. [84] India India has the highest rate of human rabies in the world, primarily because of stray dogs, 85] whose number has greatly increased since a 2001 law forbade the killing of dogs. [86] Effective control and treatment of rabies in India is hindered by a form of mass hysteria known as puppy pregnancy syndrome (PPS. Dog bite victims with PPS, male as well as female, become convinced that puppies are growing inside them, and often seek help from faith healers rather than medical services. [87] An estimated 20, 000 people die every year from rabies in India, more than a third of the global total. [86] Australia The rabies virus survives in widespread, varied, rural animal reservoirs. Despite Australia's official rabies-free status, 88] Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) discovered in 1996, is a strain of rabies prevalent in native bat populations. There have been three human cases of ABLV in Australia, all of them fatal. United States Rabies cases in humans and domestic animals — United States, 1938–2018 From 1960 to 2018, a total of 125 human rabies cases were reported in the United States; 36 (28% were attributed to dog bites during international travel. [89] Among the 89 infections acquired in the United States, 62 (70% were attributed to bats. [89] While canine-specific rabies does not circulate among dogs, about a hundred dogs become infected from other wildlife per year in the US. [90] 91] Rabies is common among wild animals in the United States. Bats, raccoons, skunks and foxes account for almost all reported cases (98% in 2009. Rabid bats are found in all 48 contiguous states. Other reservoirs are more limited geographically; for example, the raccoon rabies virus variant is only found in a relatively narrow band along the East Coast. Due to a high public awareness of the virus, efforts at vaccination of domestic animals and curtailment of feral populations, and availability of postexposure prophylaxis, incidence of rabies in humans is very rare. A total of 49 cases of the disease was reported in the country between 1995 and 2011; of these, 11 are thought to have been acquired abroad. Almost all domestically acquired cases are attributed to bat bites. [92] Europe Either no or very few cases of rabies are reported each year in Europe; cases are contracted both during travel and in Europe. [93] In Switzerland the disease was virtually eliminated after scientists placed chicken heads laced with live attenuated vaccine in the Swiss Alps. [65] The foxes of Switzerland, proven to be the main source of rabies in the country, ate the chicken heads and immunized themselves. [65] 94] Italy, after being declared rabies-free from 1997 to 2008, has witnessed a reemergence of the disease in wild animals in the Triveneto regions ( Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia) due to the spreading of an epidemic in the Balkans that also affected Austria. An extensive wild animal vaccination campaign eliminated the virus from Italy again, and it regained the rabies-free country status in 2013, the last reported case of rabies being reported in a red fox in early 2011. [95] 96] Great Britain has been free of rabies since the beginning of the twentieth century except for a rabies-like virus in a few Daubenton's bats; there has been one, fatal, case of transmission to a human. There have been four deaths from rabies, transmitted abroad by dog bite, since 2000. The last infection in the UK occurred in 1922, and the last death from indigenous rabies was in 1902. [97] 98] Unlike the other countries of Europe it is protected by being an island, and by strict quarantine procedures. Mexico Mexico was certified by the World Health Organization as free of dog-transmitted rabies in 2019, since no case of dog-human transmission has been recorded in two years. [99] History Rabies has been known since around 2000 BC. [100] The first written record of rabies is in the Mesopotamian Codex of Eshnunna (circa 1930 BC) which dictates that the owner of a dog showing symptoms of rabies should take preventive measure against bites. If another person were bitten by a rabid dog and later died, the owner was heavily fined. [101] Ineffective folk remedies abounded in the medical literature of the ancient world. The physician Scribonius Largus prescribed a poultice of cloth and hyena skin; Antaeus recommended a preparation made from the skull of a hanged man. [102] Rabies appears to have originated in the Old World, the first epizootic in the New World occurring in Boston in 1768. [103] It spread from there, over the next few years, to various other states, as well as to the French West Indies, eventually becoming common all across North America. Rabies was considered a scourge for its prevalence in the 19th century. In France and Belgium, where Saint Hubert was venerated, the " St Hubert's Key " was heated and applied to cauterize the wound. By an application of magical thinking, dogs were branded with the key in hopes of protecting them from rabies. The fear of rabies was almost irrational, due to the number of vectors (mostly rabid dogs) and the absence of any efficacious treatment. It was not uncommon for a person bitten by a dog merely suspected of being rabid to commit suicide or to be killed by others. [104] In ancient times the attachment of the tongue (the lingual frenulum, a mucous membrane) was cut and removed as this was where rabies was thought to originate. This practice ceased with the discovery of the actual cause of rabies. [25] Louis Pasteur's 1885 nerve tissue vaccine was successful, and was progressively improved to reduce often severe side-effects. [15] In modern times, the fear of rabies has not diminished, and the disease and its symptoms, particularly agitation, have served as an inspiration for several works of zombie or similarly-themed fiction, often portraying rabies as having mutated into a stronger virus which fills humans with murderous rage or incurable illness, bringing about a devastating, widespread pandemic. [105] Etymology The term is derived from the Latin rabies, madness. 106] This, in turn, may be related to the Sanskrit rabhas, to rage. 107] The Greeks derived the word lyssa, from lud or "violent" this root is used in the genus name of the rabies virus, Lyssavirus. [104] Other animals Rabies is infectious to mammals; three stages of central nervous system infection are recognized. The first stage is a one- to three-day period characterized by behavioral changes and is known as the prodromal stage. The second is the excitative stage, which lasts three to four days. This stage is often known as "furious rabies" for the tendency of the affected animal to be hyper-reactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. The third is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons. Incoordination is seen, owing to rear limb paralysis, and drooling and difficulty swallowing is caused by paralysis of facial and throat muscles. Death is usually caused by respiratory arrest. [108] Research The outer shell of the rabies virus, stripped of its RNA contents and thus unable to cause disease, may be used as a vector for the delivery of unrelated genetic material in a research setting. It has the advantage over other pseudotyping methods for gene delivery that the cell targeting ( tissue tropism) is more specific for the central nervous system, a difficult-to-reach site, obviating the need for invasive delivery methods. 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External links Classification D ICD - 10: A82 ICD - 9-CM: 071 MeSH: D011818 DiseasesDB: 11148 External resources MedlinePlus: 001334 eMedicine: med/1374 eerg/493 ped/1974 Patient UK: Rabies Orphanet: 770 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rabies. Look up rabies in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Rabies at Curlie "Rabies. Retrieved 12 August 2012. Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR) Rhabdoviridae OIE's Rabies Portal Aerophobia and Hydrophobia in Rabies Videos " Rabies virus. NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 11292.

@megan2x3 of course it's supposed to. It's perfect like that too. That person filming is crazy to be THAT close.



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